Barrett’s Esophagus: is a change in the lining of the esophagus as a result of acid damage to the esophagus. There is an increased risk of esophageal cancer. Gastroesophageal reflux disease must be adequately treated and a follow up endoscopy is usually recommended.
Duodenitis: is an irritation or inflammation of the lining of the first part of the small bowel. This may be due to medications such as aspirin or anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol, or an ulcer causing bacteria called Helicobacter pylori.
Esophagitis: is irritation of the esophagus as a result of inappropriate acid exposure from the stomach called Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is generally treated with lifestyle changes and medications or surgery.
Fundic gland polyps: are benign bumps in the stomach of no clinical significance.
Colon Polyp: is any extra tissue that protrudes into the inside of the colon. Colonic polyps vary in size.
Gastritis: is an irritation or inflammation of the lining of the stomach. This may be due to medications such as aspirin or anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol, or an ulcer causing bacteria called Helicobacter pylori.
Helicobacter pylori: is an ulcer causing bacteria. This is treated with antibiotics and acid blocking medications.
Hiatal Hernia: is a common problem sometimes related to GERD. Part of the stomach resides above the diaphragm and in the chest (instead of the abdomen).
Schatzki’s Ring: is a thin membrane at the junction of the esophagus and stomach. If it causes swallowing difficulty it may be treated with dilation or biopsy. Small asymptomatic Schatzki’s ring does not need to be treated.
Ulcer: is a deep erosion or cavitation of the lining of the stomach and/or duodenum. These can sometimes perforate resulting in surgery or they can sometimes bleed. They are generally caused by medications such as aspirin or anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen or can be caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori.
Hemorrhoids: refer to inflammation of the hemorrhoidal blood vessels at the anal opening at the end of the colon. They can cause itching, irritation, and minor bleeding in the anal area. Treatment is not needed if they are asymptomatic. Common treatment includes topical therapies as well as a high fiber diet. In rare cases surgery may be required to remove or ablate the hemorrhoids.
Inflammation; Colitis: is a general term which refers to inflammation in the colon. It can have many causes. The treatment of colitis will vary depending on the cause. It is best to discuss the finding with your doctor.
Inflammation; Ileitis: is a general term which refers to inflammation in the last part of the small intestine called the terminal ileum. It can have many causes. The treatment of ileitis will vary depending on the cause. It is best to discuss the finding with your doctor.
Diverticulosis: refers to small pouches that form in the wall of the colon, called diverticuli. They are typically in the lower colon but may be anywhere in the colon. If infected or bleeding, they require treatment. People who consume a Western diet are most susceptible. Common treatment includes a high fiber diet and avoiding constipation.
Polyp; adenomatous: are growths in the colon and are most often benign lesions. These polyps may have the potential to become malignant and transform into cancers. Polyps are removed at endoscopy and the pathology allows your physician to determine when a follow up examination will be needed.
Polyp; hyperplastic: are small benign growths in the colon that are removed at colonoscopy. These types of polyps generally do not pose any risk of colon cancer and generally do not require any further follow-up.